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Monday, 20 September 2010

ラーメン屋はなぜすぐ潰れるか

Tebo年より「twitter」なるものを始めて1年以上になりますが、情報収集のみならず色々有意義なディスカッションというか意見交換が出来てとても楽しく活用しています。しかしせっかくつぶやいたこともすぐ流れていってしまったりして、それがツイッターの良さでもあるわけですが、ちょっと寂しい気もします。もちろん過去ログは僕のツイッターのページや「Twilog」でも見ることが出来るわけですが、このブログでも時々つぶやきを整理して文章としてまとめてみようと思っています。

 そんな中、今日「超らーめんナビ」の達人としても有名な、ラーメン評論家の山本剛志さんとやりとりをしている中で、日頃思っている「ラーメン屋さんが潰れる理由」についてツイートしたので、それを今回は加筆修正、再構築してこの場で今一度書いてみようかと思います。

 仕事柄、ラーメン店の開業を考えている多くの方にお会いしますが、ほぼ100%の確率で売上げ予測がとても甘く、その甘いラインを前提にした上で色々と計算しているものですから、いざ蓋を開けてみるとすぐパンクするんです。開店してすぐに客がつくなんて言うのは絵空事。無論開店景気というものはありますが、それはよほどの好立地に出店するか、あるいは人が集まるだけの広告を打つ必要があります。集客という結果が即座に出なければ生きて行けないようなビジネスモデルを描いている時点で、リスクマネージメント能力に欠けるというか、事業部ではないなと思うのです。当然のことながら、開店当初は集客出来ないという前提で店を続けられる策を練るべきで。あまりにも出たとこ勝負の店が多過ぎます。そうすると開店して数ヶ月で閉店、なんてことになるのです。

 例えばお蕎麦屋さんの場合、開店して3ヶ月とか半年で潰れる店なんてまず聞いたことがありません。お蕎麦屋さんはまず開業するのにラーメン店よりもお金がかかります。店舗を作る段階でも内装のデザインから造作、調度品などにもかかりますし、厨房も釜を組まなきゃいけませんし、食器等も種類も多く質も良いものを選びますのでかなりかかります。イニシャルコストがラーメン店とは全然違うので、お店を始める上での覚悟が違います。居抜きでチャチャっと始めようなんてのとは了見が明らかに違うのです。

 さらにイニシャルコストがかかるので、事業資金は基本的に銀行から引っ張ることになるわけですが、そうすると事業計画も綿密にやらなければお金は下りません。でもラーメン屋さんは数百万で出来るから自己資金とか家族に借りて用立てする。第三者がその計画を精査しているか否か、この部分も相当重要なポイントです。銀行は絵空事や熱い夢に金を突っ込みませんから、金を引っ張れるということは客観的にみてそのビジネスには可能性があるということです。逆に自分とか身内の金で始める場合には、事業計画が杜撰でも勢いでことが進んでいきますから非常にリスキーなわけです。さらに、仮にビジネスが上手くいかなかった時も、銀行から借りていれば返す義務があるわけですから、それは真剣になりますが、自己資金を突っ込んでいる場合は最終的には自分が泣けば良いと諦めてしまうケースも少なくないのです。

 また開業する上での心構えもまったく違います。お蕎麦屋さんを始める人の大半は、お店をやる前に修業に入ってしっかりと基本を学び、技術と信念を持って始めますから、そうそうぶれることもないですし応用がいくらでも効く。ラーメンの場合は他の仕事で失敗し「とりあえずラーメンでも」などという行き当たりばったりな理由で始めた人も少なくありません。そういう人は基礎も出来ていなければ技術も信念もありませんので、すぐ壁にぶち当たる。オープンしてから味で悩んでお店休むとか、スープ不出来で店を休むとか、そういう恥ずかしいことをしている業界はラーメンくらいのものでしょう。

 古くさいかも知れませんが、修業や基礎、学習って大事だと思うのですね。包丁が使えなくても確かにラーメン屋さんにはなれますが、料理人としての誇りがあるならば包丁が使えないで厨房に立つなんてのはあり得ないわけです。麺を自分で打つ必要はないかも知れませんが、麺が打てるようになった上で製麺所にモノを言うべきなのです。そして他の料理を学んだり、時には書道や絵画など芸術的なセンスも高めたり、本を読んだりと表現者としての幅を広げるべきなのです。そしてその学びの手は決して緩めてはならない。

 しかし大抵のラーメン屋さんは開業がゴールだと思っているのです。飲食の世界で言えば、開業して4〜5年なんてのはペーペーもいいところですが、自分の味も定まらぬうちに数軒支店を出しただけで、社長気取りでゴルフや女に興じて遊び回り厨房に立たない店主なんて、吐いて捨てるほどいるのがこの業界です。そういう人を見ると上辺だけしか見ていないのだな、先が見えてないなといつも思うのです。で、現にそういう人で十年持った人をあまり見たことがない。実に愚かだなと思います。

 今、仮に失業したり異業種から飲食業を始めようとした場合、おそらく参入障壁が一番低いのがラーメン業界だと思います。しかしハードルが低いすなわち簡単ということでは決してありません。そこを勘違いして入ってくる人、つまりはラーメンをなめている人間が簡単に潰れていくのです。

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